To determine the diagnostic yield of computed tomography urography (CTU) in patients evaluated for hematuria with negative cystoscopy and to assess the added value of CTU when compared with ultrasound (US) in this patient population.
A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent CTU within 12 months of negative cystoscopy for workup of hematuria at our institution from January 2016 to December 2017. Computed tomography urography findings were recorded and compared to clinical diagnoses to determine diagnostic yield. Computed tomography urography and US findings were compared in patients who underwent both examinations. Patient characteristics (age, sex, smoking history, and hematuria subtype) were reported.
A total of 657 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 108 patients aged 50 years and younger. No cause for hematuria was identified in 41% of patients overall and 58% of patients aged 50 years and younger. The most common diagnoses were benign prostatic hyperplasia and urolithiasis, accounting for 25% and 21% of patients, respectively; 0.6% of patients were diagnosed with an upper urinary tract malignancy, all older than 50 years. Although US was superior or equal to CTU for diagnosis in 83% of patients who underwent both examinations, US had a 0% sensitivity for detection of upper urinary tract malignancy.
The low diagnostic yield of CTU and low prevalence of upper urinary tract malignancy in patients evaluated for hematuria with negative cystoscopy, particularly those aged 50 years and younger, call into question the appropriateness of multiphasic CTU as a first-line imaging modality in this population.