Investigating coherent normalization and dosimetry for the 241Am-La K XRF system
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OBJECTIVES: Lanthanum (La) retention in bone has been shown to occur in individuals who are orally administered lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a drug to treat hyperphosphatemia. The breakdown of LaC in the gastrointestinal tract into La3+ and carbonate ions results in residual quantities of La being deposited in bone. We previously reported on a non-invasive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) system that was developed to quantify bone La concentrations and applied it to a series of excised cadaver tibiae. However, given interpatient variability in bone shape and size, differential signal attenuation that occurs in bone and tissue, patient movement and overlying tissue thickness at the measurement site, quantifying bone La concentrations during in vivo measurements in live subjects needs to be investigated further along with the radiation dose associated with the measurement. APPROACH: Coherent normalization was investigated as a function of overlying tissue thickness, source-subject distance and bone radius through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental work. This was accomplished by observing the ratio of the net La K x-ray peak area to the coherently scattered peak area at 59.5 keV. In addition, the dose delivered during a 2000 s measurement was determined using radiochromic film. MAIN RESULTS: The coherent normalization of the La x-ray signal was shown to be independent of overlying tissue thickness, source-subject movement and bone radius, which indicates that this normalization procedure can correct for these factors. The equivalent skin dose and effective dose were 18.0 mSv and 3.2 μSv, respectively for a five-year-old. SIGNIFICANCE: While coherent normalization for the bone lead (Pb) and bone gadolinium (Gd) systems has been shown to be successful, we also report that this normalization procedure can correct for these interpatient variabilities in the in vivo 241Am-La K XRF system.
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