We report on amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance-determining region of type II topisomerases and the prevalence of reserpine-inhibited efflux for 70 clinical isolates of
S. pneumoniaefor which the ciprofloxacin MIC is ≥4 μg/ml and 28 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC is ≤2 μg/ml. The amino acid substitutions in ParC conferring low-level resistance (MICs, 4 to 8 μg/ml) included Phe, Tyr, and Ala for Ser-79; Asn, Ala, Gly, Tyr, and Val for Asp-83; Asn for Asp-78; and Pro for Ala-115. Isolates with intermediate-level (MICs, 16 to 32 μg/ml) and high-level (MICs, 64 μg/ml) resistance harbored substitutions of Phe and Tyr for Ser-79 or Asn and Ala for Asp-83 in ParC and an additional substitution in GyrA which included either Glu-85-Lys (Gly) or Ser-81-Phe (Tyr). Glu-85-Lys was found exclusively in isolates with high-level resistance. Efflux contributed primarily to low-level resistance in isolates with or without an amino acid substitution in ParC. The impact of amino acid substitutions in ParE was minimal, and no substitutions in GyrB were identified.