Acetylation phenotype and cytochrome P450IA2 phenotype are unlikely to be associated with peripheral arterial disease
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The hypothesis that cytochrome P450IA2 (CYPIA2) and/or N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) may be involved in the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease was investigated in 90 Australian patients with significant disease and 81 matched control subjects. CYPIA2 and NAT2 phenotypes were determined from urinary metabolite patterns after an oral dose of caffeine. NAT2 phenotype was similar (chi 2 = 0.01; p = 0.98) in both atherosclerotic patients (43.3% rapid) and control subjects (42.0% rapid). CYPIA2 metabolism as measured by the median ratio of (1,7-dimethylxanthine + 1,7-dimethyluric acid)/caffeine was significantly induced by smoking in both patients with atherosclerosis (ratio of 6.5 in nonsmokers and 12.4 in smokers; p < 0.05) and control subjects (ratio of 8.2 in nonsmokers and 14.8 in smokers; p < 0.05), but values in atherosclerotic and control nonsmokers and smokers were similar. Probit transformation of the data revealed a trimodal distribution of ratios in control subjects who were nonsmokers, with 5% classified as poor metabolizers (homozygous rapid) and 95% as extensive metabolizers. The distribution of ratios in control subjects who were smokers was unimodal, whereas among the patients with arterial disease, both smokers and nonsmokers exhibited a bimodal pattern with 8.2% to 16% poor metabolizer and 84% to 91.8% extensive metabolizer phenotypes. When data from both nonsmokers and smokers were combined, the overall proportion of subjects who were poor metabolizers was not significantly different (chi 2 = 1.82; p = 0.18) between control subjects (3.8%) and patients with atherosclerosis (10.6%). Thus biotransformation of environmental or dietary aromatic or heterocyclic amines by NAT2 or CYPIA2 is unlikely to have a significant role in the cause or pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease.
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