Fluoroscopy is used in hip arthroscopy (HA) for portal placement, instrument localisation, and guidance in bony resection. The recent increase in arthroscopic hip procedures may place patients and surgeons at risk for increased radiation exposure and radiation-induced complications. The purpose of the current systematic review was to assess intraoperative radiation exposure in HA.
The systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines; inclusion criteria were studies assessing radiation exposure in HA. 9 studies including 994 patients were included. Mean age was 38.6 years and 48% (436 of 906) were female. Mean time of fluoroscopy exposure was 0.58 minutes. Dose area product was 129.5 cGycm2. Mean intraoperative absorbed radiation dose studies was 12.6 mGy. Mean intraoperative effective dose was 0.48 mSv. The mean occupational exposure to the surgeon per case was 0.0031 mSv. Higher patient body mass index (BMI) correlated to greater patient effective and cumulative dose ( p < 0.05, r = 0.404), and greater occupational exposure ( p < 0.001, r = 0.460). Increasing surgeon experience decreased fluoroscopy time ( p = 0.039) and radiation dose ( p = 0.002).
Radiation dose and effective dose were well under the thresholds for deterministic effects (2 Gy) and annual radiation exposure for occupational workers (20 mSv). Intraoperative radiation exposure to patients and surgeons is within acceptable annual radiation limits. Ensuring careful selection of perioperative imaging modalities, proper protective shielding, specifically the use of leaded eyeglasses, and optimal C-arm positioning are key strategies to reduce radiation exposure to patients and surgeons alike.