A conceptual framework for patient-directed knowledge tools to support patient-centred care: Results from an evidence-informed consensus meeting Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: Patient-directed knowledge tools are designed to engage patients in dialogue or deliberation, to support patient decision-making or self-care of chronic conditions. However, an abundance of these exists. The tools themselves and their purposes are not always clearly defined; creating challenges for developers and users (professionals, patients). The study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework of patient-directed knowledge tool types. METHODS: A face-to-face evidence-informed consensus meeting with 15 international experts. After the meeting, the framework went through two rounds of feedback before informal consensus was reached. RESULTS: A conceptual framework containing five patient-directed knowledge tool types was developed. The first part of the framework describes the tools' purposes and the second focuses on the tools' core elements. CONCLUSION: The framework provides clarity on which types of patient-directed tools exist, the purposes they serve, and which core elements they prototypically include. It is a working framework and will require further refinement as the area develops, alongside validation with a broader group of stakeholders. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The framework assists developers and users to know which type a tool belongs, its purpose and core elements, helping them to develop and use the right tool for the right job.


  • Dreesens, Dunja
  • Stiggelbout, Anne
  • Agoritsas, Thomas
  • Elwyn, Glyn
  • Flottorp, Signe
  • Grimshaw, Jeremy
  • Kremer, Leontien
  • Santesso, Nancy
  • Stacey, Dawn
  • Treweek, Shaun
  • Armstrong, Melissa
  • Gagliardi, Anna
  • Hill, Sophie
  • Légaré, France
  • Ryan, Rebecca
  • Vandvik, Per
  • van der Weijden, Trudy

publication date

  • October 2019