Deficient glycosylation of arylsulfatase A in pseudo arylsulfatase-A deficiency
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Deficient arylsulfatase-A activity is diagnostic of a neurodegenerative human lysosomal storage disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy. Paradoxically, similar enzyme deficiency also occurs in normal individuals, who are known as being pseudo arylsulfatase-A deficient. We showed previously that this phenotype is associated with a structural gene mutation that produces an exceptionally labile enzyme. We now report on the nature and consequence of this mutation. When the mutant arylsulfatase-A is deglycosylated by endoglycosidase H, only one smaller molecular species was generated, instead of the two from the normal enzyme. This is consistent with the loss of one of the two N-linked oligosaccharide side chains known to be present on the wild-type enzyme. Quantitative analysis of mannose and leucine incorporation showed that the mutant enzyme incorporated two- to tenfold less mannose than the normal enzyme on a molar basis. This deficient glycosylation was specific to arylsulfatase-A. Another lysosomal enzyme not affected in this mutation, beta-hexosaminidase, was glycosylated normally in the mutant cells. The remaining single oligosaccharide side chain released from the mutant arylsulfatase-A by pronase digestion was normally processed to complex and high-mannose forms. However, the high-mannose side chains contained 30% fewer phosphorylated residues than those of the normal enzyme. Nevertheless, this reduced level of phosphorylation did not prevent targeting of the mutant enzyme to the lysosomes, a process normally mediated through phosphorylated mannose residues. In conclusion, pseudo arylsulfatase-A deficiency is a unique human mutation associated with reduced glycosylation and phosphorylation of a lysosomal enzyme with the loss of one of the two carbohydrate side chains. The mutation results in greatly reduced enzyme stability, thus indicating a role for oligosaccharides in maintaining enzyme stability within the degradative environment of the lysosomes. However, the residual catalytic activity or subcellular targeting of the mutant enzyme was not affected. These properties probably account for the benign clinical presentation of pseudo arylsulfatase-A deficiency.
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