Tobacco use is the largest preventable risk factor for the development of several cancers, and continued tobacco use by patients with cancer and survivors of cancer causes adverse outcomes. Worldwide tobacco control efforts have reduced tobacco use and improved health outcomes in many countries, but several countries continue to suffer from increased tobacco use and associated adverse health effects. Continued tobacco use by patients undergoing cancer screening or treatment results in continued risk for cancer-related and noncancer-related health conditions. Although integrating tobacco assessment and cessation support into lung cancer screening and cancer care is well justified and feasible, most patients with cancer unfortunately do not receive evidence-based tobacco cessation support. Combining evidence-based methods of treating tobacco addiction, such as behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy, with practical clinical considerations in the setting of lung cancer screening and cancer treatment should result in substantial improvements in access to evidence-based care and resultant improvements in health risks and cancer treatment outcomes.