Changes in nutrient intake and inflammation following an anti-inflammatory diet in spinal cord injury
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Objective: The objective of the current study was to describe the observed changes in nutrient intakes following a 3-month anti-inflammatory diet, and to explore potential relationships between the change in nutrients and the change in various inflammatory mediators.Design: A secondary analysis of a prior randomized controlled clinical trial.Setting: Individuals with SCI within the Niagara region.Participants: Twenty individuals with various levels and severities of SCI.Intervention: Three-month anti-inflammatory diet.Outcome Measures: The change in nutrient intake and corresponding changes to various inflammatory mediators.Results: The treatment group demonstrated a significant reduction in fat intake (P = 0.02), a significant increase in protein intake (P = 0.02), and no change in carbohydrates (P = 0.23) or energy intake (P = 0.10). The treatment group showed a significant increase in some nutrients with established anti-inflammatory properties including vitamins A, C, and E, and omega-3 fatty acids (P < 0.01). Significant reductions in proinflammatory nutrients were observed including trans fatty acids (P = 0.05), caffeine (P < 0.01), and sodium (P = 0.02). The treatment group also showed significant reductions in the proinflammatory mediators interferon-y (P = 0.01), interleukin-1β (P < 0.01), and interleukin-6 (P < 0.05). Further, several proinflammatory mediators were negatively correlated with anti-inflammatory nutrients, including vitamin A, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that dietary alterations are effective at reducing chronic inflammation in individuals with SCI and provides a preliminary assessment of the related nutrient changes.
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