Cytotoxic Profiling of Endogenous Metabolites Relevant to Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS) on p53 Variant Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines
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Chemoprophylatic strategies against development of multifactorial diseases utilize compounds to block the multistep events in chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. The successful chemopreventative candidate must therefore selectively inhibit growth of transformed cells and be administered frequently to confer maximal protection with minimal side effects. In addition to synthetic and exogenous natural compounds, endogenous metabolites represent another class of compounds that exhibit anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties contributing to proper cell function. To assess the effectiveness of these compounds warrants an understanding of their cytotoxic mode of action. In this study, p53 variant human colon carcinoma cell lines were chronically exposed to varying concentrations of the endogenous metabolites-phenyl acetate, ursodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate-to determine the role of p53-induced cytotoxicity, with p53 mutant and deficient cell lines representing precancerous lesions. Cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic assays, and macroscopic colony counts were used to quantify cell survival. The results demonstrate that the bile acids, ursodeoxycholate and tauroursodeoxycholate, exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward nonfunctional p53 cell lines suggesting a p53-mediated role in inhibition of cell clonogenicity and potential chemopreventative properties. Although each compound displays this described effect, the tauroursodeoxycholate demonstrates high significance suggesting it might have practical uses in vivo.
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