Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and leptin levels are related to abdominal aortic intima-media thickness in macrosomic newborns
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OBJECTIVE: Exposure to diabetes in utero has been established as a significant risk factor for some of the components of metabolic syndrome, and was associated with increased levels of maternal, placental, and fetal insulin-like growth factors and leptin. The atherogenic effects of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have been extensively described. The present study was therefore designed to investigate relationships between abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT), serum IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and leptin levels in macrosomic newborns. DESIGN: Neonates whose birth weights exceed 90th percentile for gestational age and gender are termed macrosomic. Abdominal aortic intima-media thickness was measured in 30 macrosomic neonates of diabetic mothers (group A), 30 macrosomic neonates of healthy mothers (group B) and 30 healthy neonates (group C). Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were determined in all infants and their mothers. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for aortic intima-media thickness. RESULTS: Mean aortic intima-media thickness was significantly higher in groups A and B (0.489+/-0.015,0.466+/-0.019 mm, respectively) than in controls (0.375+/-0.024 mm, p<0.0001). Weight-adjusted aortic intima-media thickness was significantly higher in-group A than in groups B (p=0.004) and C (p=0.048). Serum leptin concentration in-group B (37.4+/-10.7 ng/ml) was significantly greater than in-group C (23.5+/-7.1 ng/ml, p<0.0001), but significantly lower than in-group A (46.6+/-14.1 ng/ml, p<0.0001). Serum IGF-I levels of the infants were significantly lower in-group C (113.2+/-33.1 ng/ml) than in groups A and B (205.2+/-60.1 and 179.3+/-55.1 ng/ml respectively, p<0.0001). Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels of the infants were positively correlated with mean (p<0.0001) and weight-adjusted aortic intima-media thickness measurements (p=0.003, p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Macrosomic neonates of diabetic mothers have significantly increased aortic intima-media thickness with higher serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and leptin concentrations than those of controls. It might be speculated that these changes may exaggerate the atherosclerotic process later in life.
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