Ingestion of a Multi-Ingredient Supplement Does Not Alter Exercise-Induced Satellite Cell Responses in Older Men
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Background: Nutritional supplementation can have beneficial effects on body composition, strength, and function in older adults. However, whether the response of satellite cells can be altered by nutritional supplementation in older adults remains unknown. Objective: We assessed whether a multi-ingredient protein-based supplement taken over a prolonged period of time could alter the muscle satellite cell response after exercise in older men. Methods: Twenty-seven older men [mean ± SD age: 73 ± 1 y; mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 28 ± 1] participated in a randomized double-blind experiment. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental (EXP) group (n = 13) who consumed a multi-ingredient protein-based supplement [30 g whey protein, 2.5 g creatine, 500 IU vitamin D, 400 mg Ca, and 1500 mg n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids] 2 times/d for 7 wk or a control (CON; 22 g maltodextrin) group (n = 14). After 7 wk of supplementation, all participants performed a single resistance exercise session, and muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 24 and 48 h after exercise. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the change in type I and II muscle fiber satellite cell content and activation status of the cells. In addition, mRNA expression of the myogenic regulatory factors was determined by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: In response to the single bout of exercise, type I muscle fiber satellite cell content was significantly increased at 24 h (0.132 ± 0.015 and 0.131 ± 0.011 satellite cells/fiber in CON and EXP groups, respectively) and 48 h (0.126 ± 0.010 and 0.120 ± 0.012 satellite cells/fiber in CON and EXP groups, respectively) compared with pre-exercise (0.092 ± 0.007 and 0.118 ± 0.017 satellite cells/fiber in CON and EXP groups, respectively) muscle biopsy samples (P < 0.01), with no difference between the 2 groups. In both groups, we observed no significant changes in type II muscle fiber satellite cell content after exercise. Conclusion: Ingesting a multi-ingredient protein-based supplement for 7 wk did not alter the type I or II muscle fiber satellite cell response during postexercise recovery in older men. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02281331.
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