Oral Versus Vaginal Combined Hormonal Contraceptives' Effect on Coagulation and Inflammatory Biomarkers Among Young Adult Women
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In order to compare the effect of combined oral contraceptive (COC) and combined vaginal contraceptive (CVC) methods on the inflammation and procoagulation, we recruited female participants in 3 groups: control participants, COC users, and CVC users. We measured different blood biomarkers. The users of both COC and CVC had higher levels of C-reactive protein (P < .0001) and factor VII (P < .0001). However, CD40 ligand was only higher for COC users (P < .0001) and not the CVC users. Even though the levels of thrombin/antithrombin III were not higher for COC and CVC users, as compared to the controls, CVC users had higher levels as compared to COC users (P = .0327). As compared to the control group, we observed higher levels von Willebrand factor among CVC users but not the COC users. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are needed to better assess the inflammatory and procoagulation response due to CVC use.
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