Benign breast papillary lesions diagnosed on core biopsy: upgrade rate and risk factors associated with malignancy on surgical excision
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Evaluation of radiologically detected breast lesions is a common task in surgical pathology. Some benign lesions on biopsy are associated with an upgrade to in situ or invasive carcinoma on excision. The non-atypical breast papilloma has published upgrade rates of 0 to 29%. Traditionally, papillomas have been managed surgically, but the wide range of upgrade rates has raised uncertainty about the need for routine surgical excision. This study aims to identify risk factors associated with upgrade and determine the upgrade rate of non-atypical papillomas at our institution. In a retrospective review of pathology reports, we identified 266 patients with a diagnosis of benign papilloma on breast core biopsy. One hundred eighty-two patients underwent surgical resection. The final surgical pathology reports of all patients were reviewed and divided into one of two groups-benign or malignant. Twenty-one patients had a final diagnosis of in situ or invasive carcinoma, resulting in an upgrade rate of 12%. Radiologically detected lesions with calcifications were at higher risk for upgrade (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 1.08-18.27) than lesions without calcifications. Additionally, advanced patient age (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.13) and lesion size greater than 0.5 cm (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 0.38-17.48) was associated with upgrade to malignancy. Routine surgical excision of all papillomas is not recommended. Younger patients without high-risk features may benefit from clinical and radiologic follow-up alone. Accurate risk stratification will spare low-risk women unnecessary surgery.
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