Effect of resistance training and protein intake pattern on myofibrillar protein synthesis and proteome kinetics in older men in energy restriction
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KEY POINTS: Strategies to enhance the loss of fat while preserving muscle mass during energy restriction are of great importance to prevent sarcopenia in overweight older adults. We show for the first time that the integrated rate of synthesis of numerous individual contractile, cytosolic and mitochondrial skeletal muscle proteins was increased by resistance training (RT) and unaffected by dietary protein intake pattern during energy restriction in free-living, obese older men. We observed a correlation between the synthetic rates of skeletal muscle-derived proteins obtained in serum (creatine kinase M-type, carbonic anhydrase 3) and the synthetic rates of proteins obtained via muscle sampling; and that the synthesis rates of these proteins in serum revealed the stimulatory effects of RT. These results have ramifications for understanding the influence of RT on skeletal muscle and are consistent with the role of RT in maintaining muscle protein synthesis and potentially supporting muscle mass preservation during weight loss. ABSTRACT: We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2 weeks) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2 weeks of ER alone and 2 weeks of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein per meal × 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein per meal) pattern (n = 10 per group). Participants ingested deuterated water during the consecutive 2-week periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT. Bulk MyoPS (i.e. synthesis of the myofibrillar protein sub-fraction) and the synthetic rates of numerous individual skeletal muscle proteins were quantified. Bulk MyoPS was not affected by protein distribution during ER or ER + RT (ER: BAL = 1.24 ± 0.31%/day, SKEW = 1.26 ± 0.37%/day; ER + RT: BAL = 1.64 ± 0.48%/day, SKEW = 1.52 ± 0.66%/day) but was ∼26% higher during ER + RT than during ER (P = 0.023). The synthetic rates of 175 of 190 contractile, cytosolic and mitochondrial skeletal muscle proteins, as well as synthesis of muscle-derived proteins measured in serum, creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3), were higher during ER + RT than during ER (P < 0.05). In addition, the synthetic rates of CK-M and CA-3 measured in serum correlated with the synthetic rates of proteins obtained via muscle sampling (P < 0.05). This study provides novel data on the skeletal muscle adaptations to RT and dietary protein distribution.
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