A role of SIPL1/SHARPIN in promoting resistance to hormone therapy in breast cancer
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SIPL1 inhibits PTEN function and stimulates NF-κB signaling; both processes contribute to resistance to hormone therapy in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (ER+ BC). However, whether SIPL1 promotes tamoxifen resistance in BC remains unclear. We report here that SIPL1 enhances tamoxifen resistance in ER+ BC. Overexpression of SIPL1 in MCF7 and TD47 cells conferred tamoxifen resistance. In MCF7 cell-derived tamoxifen resistant (TAM-R) cells, SIPL1 expression was upregulated and knockdown of SIPL1 in TAM-R cells re-sensitized the cells to tamoxifen. Furthermore, xenograft tumors produced by MCF7 SIPL1 cells but not by MCF7 empty vector cells resisted tamoxifen treatment. Collectively, we demonstrated a role of SIPL1 in promoting tamoxifen resistance in BC. Increases in AKT activation and NF-κB signaling were detected in both MCF7 SIPL1 and TAM-R cells; using specific inhibitors and unique SIPL1 mutants to inhibit either pathway significantly reduced tamoxifen resistance. A SIPL1 mutant defective in activating both pathways was incapable of conferring resistance to tamoxifen, showing that both pathways contributed to SIPL1-derived resistance to tamoxifen in ER+ BCs. Using the Curtis dataset of breast cancer (n=1980) within the cBioPortal database, we examined a correlation of SIPL1 expression with ER+ BC and resistance to hormone therapy. SIPL1 upregulation strongly associates with reductions in overall survival in BC patients, particularly in patients with hormone naïve ER+ BCs. Taken together, we provide data suggesting that SIPL1 contributes to promote resistance to tamoxifen in BC cells through both AKT and NF-κB actions.
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