Endotoxin-induced Renal Inflammatory Response
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The systemic response to endotoxin is characterized by hypotension and severe reductions in blood pressure, leading to cardiovascular collapse that can accompany septicemia. The renin/angiotensin system would normally be expected to respond to hypotensive challenge; however, inflammation appears to modify this response. This study identifies a strong acute phase response of the kidney that is characterized by enhanced expression of serum amyloid A, haptoglobin and tissue inhibitor for metalloproteinase-1 and a reduced expression of renin. Equivalent regulatory effects were observed for the immortalized As4.1 kidney cell line that models certain features of juxtaglomerular cells. Oncostatin M, a known endotoxin-responsive proinflammatory cytokine, proved to be an effective inhibitor of renin gene expression. Suppression by oncostatin M involves activated STAT5 and requires an inhibitory element in the renin promoter that functions separately from cell type-specific enhancer elements. The renal acute phase reaction, unlike the liver acute phase reaction, is more strongly dependent on locally produced inflammatory factors.
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