Venous Thromboembolism Events After Hip Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic literature review focused on hip arthroscopy was to (1) report the venous thromboembolism (VTE) event incidence in patients who receive VTE prophylaxis and those who do not, (2) report how VTE prophylaxis is currently being administered, and (3) report operative and patient-related risk factors for VTE identified in the literature. METHODS: The electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed were searched from database inception to October 10, 2016, and screened in duplicate for relevant studies. Data were collected regarding VTE prophylaxis, traction use, surgical time, VTE incidence, patient and operative factors, and postoperative weight bearing and rehabilitation. Study quality was assessed in duplicate with the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria. RESULTS: Outcome analyses included 14 studies that involved 2,850 patients (2,985 hips). The weighted mean follow-up period was 19 ± 8 months, ranging from 7 days to 103 months. The weighted mean age was 40.7 ± 7 years, ranging from 6 to 82 years, and 39.6% of patients were male patients. The overall weighted proportion of VTE events after hip arthroscopy found in 14 included studies was 2.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.01%-4.1%), with 25 VTE events. Several studies reported patient risk factors, which included increased age, increased body mass index, prolonged traction time, and use of oral contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS: The use and efficacy of VTE prophylaxis are highly under-reported within hip arthroscopy. The low incidence of VTE events found in this review (2.0%) suggests that prophylaxis may not be necessary in low-risk patients undergoing hip arthroscopy; however, the true rate may be under-reported. Current literature suggests that prophylaxis is typically not prescribed. Early mobility and postoperative rehabilitation may also help to further mitigate the risk of VTE events, but use of these strategies needs further prospective evaluation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of Level II through IV studies.
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