- Highly entangled TiO(2) nanowires were directly synthesized by hydrothermal growth on Ti substrates at 180 °C utilizing various organic solvents to oxidize Ti. The growth mechanism, microstructure and phase transition of TiO(2) nanowire membranes were investigated in detail. TiO(2) nanowires, with diameters of 10-20 nm and lengths up to 100 μm, show a phase transition from Type-B to anatase by annealing at 700 °C. Robust, free standing TiO(2) nanowire membranes with millimeter level thickness can be cleaved from Ti substrates or directly prepared from thin Ti foils. These porous TiO(2) membranes, while effective for mechanical microfiltration, can also photocatalytically degrade pharmaceuticals such as trimethoprim under UV irradiation.