Thermoresponsive nanogels for prolonged duration local anesthesia
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Nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) are attractive vehicles for prolonged duration local anesthesia because of their tunable size, number of functional groups, thermoresponsiveness and anionic charge. Nerve block durations of up to 9h were achieved using acrylic acid-loaded nanogels loaded with bupivacaine. Increasing the anionic charge density of the nanogels or (for more highly acid-functionalized nanogels) decreasing the nanogel size facilitated longer duration of anesthetic release. Small (<300 nm diameter) nanogels formed dense aggregates upon injection in vivo and induced only mild inflammatory responses, while large (>500 nm diameter) nanogels typically remained as liquid-like residues in vivo and induced more severe inflammatory reactions.
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