GRADE-Leitlinien: 11. Gesamtbeurteilung des Vertrauens in Effektschätzer für einen einzelnen Studienendpunkt und für alle Endpunkte Journal Articles uri icon

  • Overview
  • Research
  • Identity
  • Additional Document Info
  • View All


  • GRADE requires guideline developers to make an overall rating of confidence in estimates of effect (quality of evidence-high, moderate, low, or very low) for each important or critical outcome. GRADE suggests, for each outcome, the initial separate consideration of five domains of reasons for rating down the confidence in effect estimates, thereby allowing systematic review authors and guideline developers to arrive at an outcome-specific rating of confidence. Although this rating system represents discrete steps on an ordinal scale, it is helpful to view confidence in estimates as a continuum, and the final rating of confidence may differ from that suggested by separate consideration of each domain. An overall rating of confidence in estimates of effect is only relevant in settings when recommendations are being made. In general, it is based on the critical outcome that provides the lowest confidence.


  • Kaminski-Hartenthaler, Angela
  • Gartlehner, Gerald
  • Kien, Christina
  • Meerpohl, Joerg J
  • Langer, Gero
  • Perleth, Matthias
  • Schunemann, Holger

publication date

  • January 2013