Clinical Outcomes in Obese and Normal-weight Children Undergoing Ultrasound for Suspected Appendicitis
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BACKGROUND: Obesity constitutes an independent predictor for a nondiagnostic screening ultrasound (US) in suspected appendicitis. Furthermore, the imaging route consisting of the screening US with a second US if necessary has a significantly lower diagnostic accuracy in the obese children (83%) than their lean counterparts (93%). However, the effect of this association on clinical outcomes in the obese population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: In children presenting to the emergency department (ED) undergoing US for suspected appendicitis, the objective was to examine if there is a significant difference in the proportions of those with a "desirable outcome" in the obese group versus their normal-weight counterparts. METHODS: This was a reanalysis of a recent prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary care pediatric ED. A consecutive sample of 263 previously healthy children 4-17 years of age undergoing screening US for suspected appendicitis was enrolled. Study patients were divided into obese (body mass index-for-age percentiles [BMI-FAP] ≥ 85%) and normal-weight groups. The main outcome was the proportion of children with the desirable outcome in the obese and normal-weight groups. Desirable outcomes for patients with a nondiagnostic screening US were defined as either 1) nonperforated appendicitis or alternate surgical diagnosis undergoing appropriate surgical procedure within 24 hours of assessment without a computed tomography (CT) scan or 2) no appendicitis, discharged from the ED within 24 hours without a CT scan. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization, CT imaging for any reason within 30 days of initial presentation, length of hospital stay, return visits, time to and length of surgery, and complications. RESULTS: Of the 263 patients, 76 (28.9%) were obese, and 187 had a normal weight. Ninety-nine children (37.6%) had appendicitis (obese = 24, normal-weight = 75). The desirable outcome was achieved in 46 (64.5%) of the obese patients versus 137 (73.3%) of the normal-weight children (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference = -0.21 to 0.04). Compared to the normal-weight children, the obese children had similar hospitalization rates (44.7% vs. 45.5%), median length of hospital stay (20.5 hours vs. 23.0 hours), and return ED visit rates (11.8% vs. 9.1%). The median time to surgery (obese = 10.5 hours, normal-weight = 9.0 hours), complications (obese = 25%, normal-weight = 21.3%), perforations (obese = 33%, normal-weight = 31%), and length of surgery (obese 80 [±37] minutes, normal-weight 67 [±25] minutes) were also similar. The rate of CT within 30 days of initial presentation was higher in the obese compared to the normal-weight group (13/76 or 17.1% vs. 13/187 or 6.9%, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Previously healthy obese children undergoing screening US for suspected appendicitis experienced comparable clinical outcomes to their normal-weight counterparts. However, they were three times more likely to receive a CT scan during their investigation. These results argue for continuing current practice of using the screening US in this population, followed by a CT if clinically warranted upon reexamination.
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