Regional Ischemic Ventricular Dysfunction in Myocardium Supplied by a Narrowed Coronary Artery with Increasing Halothane Concentration in the Dog
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The effects of increasing inspired halothane concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 per cent) upon left ventricular myocardium supplied by a critically narrowed coronary artery and a normal coronary artery were studied in 11 open-chested dogs. Regional ventricular function was measured by continuous recording of ventricular segment length using pairs of implanted miniature ultrasonic length detectors in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and left circumflex coronary artery (LC) territories before and during critical stenosis of the LAD by a micrometer-controlled snare. Critical narrowing was documented by ischemic regional ventricular function (i.e., post-systolic shortening; systolic lengthening) limited to the LAD territory when FIO2 = 0 for 90 seconds. Hemodynamic variables (aortic, left atrial and left ventricular pressure, and heart rate) were measured, ECG lead II was recorded, and the first derivative of left ventricular pressure (LV dP/dt) and coronary perfusion pressure derived for each halothane concentration before and during LAD narrowing. Increasing halothane was associated with equivalent progressive depression of global ventricular function before and during LAD constriction. Prior to LAD constriction, no ischemic changes in regional function occurred. Regional ventricular function was normal during 0.5 percent halothane in the presence of LAD constriction. With increasing halothane during LAD constriction, ischemic regional ventricular function was observed in the LAD territory in eight of eleven hearts, whereas regional ventricular function remained normal in the LC territory. The epicardial ECG was recorded in three dogs and was insensitive as an indicator of ischemia, becoming abnormal only after severe ischemic changes were established. In these studies, in which heart rate remained constant, arterial blood pressure and LV dP/dt decreased, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased, decrease in blood flow and oxygen delivery due to a lower perfusion pressure distal to the coronary artery narrowing appears to be primarily responsible for the observations. The authors hypothesize that clinically unapparent episodes of regional myocardial ischemia distal to narrowed coronary arteries may be an important cause of perioperative myocardial infarction.
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