Design and rationale of the MICHELANGELO Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS)–5 trial program evaluating fondaparinux, a synthetic factor Xa inhibitor, in patients with non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes
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BACKGROUND: Factor Xa plays a central role in the generation of thrombin, making it a novel target for treatment of arterial thrombosis. Fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide, is a factor Xa inhibitor, which has been shown to be superior to enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thrombosis. We designed a large, phase III, randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. STUDY DESIGN: The OASIS-5 trial is a randomized, double-blind trial of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in 20,000 patients with unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The primary objective is to determine whether fondaparinux is noninferior to enoxaparin in preventing the composite of death, new myocardial infarction, and refractory ischemia at 9 days (primary outcome) and at 30 days (secondary outcome) after randomization. There will be additional follow-up of all patients for 3 to 6 months after randomization. If noninferiority is established at 9 days, superiority will be tested. The primary safety outcome is to evaluate the rates of major bleeds in the 2 groups with the balance of benefit and risk assessed by comparing the impact on the composite of the primary and safety outcomes. Secondary outcomes are each component of the composite primary outcome separately at days 9, 30, and up to 6 months. The TIMACS, a major substudy using a partial 2x2 factorial design evaluating whether early angiography and intervention (within 24 hours) are superior to a more delayed approach (after 36 hours) in reducing major ischemic events at 6 months after randomization. CONCLUSIONS: The MICHELANGELO OASIS 5 program will provide a comprehensive and reliable evaluation of fondaparinux in a broad spectrum of patients with ACS.
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