There is more to life and death than mitochondria: Bcl-2 proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum
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Proteins of the Bcl-2 family are important regulators of cell fate. The role of these proteins in controlling mitochondrial apoptotic processes has been extensively investigated, although exact molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. However, mounting evidence indicates that these proteins also function at the endoplasmic reticulum and other locations within the cell. Both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members can regulate endoplasmic reticulum calcium, cellular pH and endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins. In this review, we discuss the activities and potential targets of Bcl-2 family members at the endoplasmic reticulum and other cellular locations.
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