- Social phobia is a common psychiatric disorder that is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity and disability. There is currently considerable evidence for the efficacy of pharmacotherapy, especially the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, in the treatment of this disorder. In addition, researchers have recently begun to explore the underlying neurobiology of social phobia with results that will likely have important implications for future treatments. This article provides a review of the results to date of controlled medication trials. A review of chemical and neuroendocrine challenges, neurotransmitter functioning, and neuroimaging studies in social phobia is provided, followed by a discussion of the implications of these findings for future treatment and research.