- A case management approach to support services was developed in a Toronto-based AIDS service organization (ASO) in Canada to support people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) whose needs could not be addressed through usual self-directed access to services. It was therefore important to determine which PLHAs would benefit most from case management. New clients and those who had been receiving support services from an ASO were randomized to receive either self-directed use of support services or self-directed care plus strengths-based case management for a six-month period. Results indicated that those who benefited most from case management were very depressed at baseline. Strengths-based case management compared to usual self-directed care markedly improved the physical, social and mental health function of very depressed PLHAs, and reduced their risk behaviours. In addition, the case management participants' use of community services was associated with an economically important, though not statistically significant, $3,300 per person per annum lower expenditure for the use of all direct health and social services. Although more research is warranted, this research demonstrates that ASOs and funders ought to seriously consider implementing a case management approach to practical assistance for PLHAs with depression.