Assembly of antibodies in lipid membranes for biosensor development
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An investigation of the incorporation of antibody in lipid films of a composition that has been used for biosensor preparation is reported. IgG that is incorporated into lipid monolayers prepared from 7:3 mixtures of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid is edge-active, and enters and penetrates the fluid region of the mixed-phase system when monolayers are held at low pressure (< 20 mN/m). It was found that there is an "exclusion pressure" observed in pressure-area (pi-A) curves that are collected for monolayers that contain antibody. This term refers to a specific threshold of lateral pressure (which is reached by monolayer compression) that can cause explusion of antibody from the interior of a membrane. Microscopic images of monolayers containing the fluorescent phospholipid nitrobenzoxadiazole dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NBD-PE), or antibody labeled with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC), were used to determine the structure of membranes, and the location of effects on structure caused by IgG. Ellipsometric measurements of lipid monolayers that were cast onto silicon wafers by the Langmuir-Blodgett method were used to study the thickness of monolayers and to investigate the structural changes that occurred at the "exclusion pressure." Both the use of fluorescent antigen and ellipsometry indicated that antibody binding activity was present and was dependent on compression pressure. The effects of pH and ionic strength of subphase, antibody concentration, incubation time, and lateral pressure have been examined. The results may indicate the conditions that can be used to improve the incorporation of active IgG for preparation of biosensors that are based on lipid membranes.
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