- This study compares current level of workforce participation and number, type and length of career interruptions since entering medical school reported by young men and women physicians. By 10 years from medical school entry, one third of the women studied had taken a maternity/child care leave and 24% had taken time away from their careers for other reasons while only 11% of men had interrupted their careers. The average time taken and reasons given for non-maternity-related career interruption were similar for men and women. Both men and women in the types of medical careers that historically have attracted more women work shorter hours than those in medical career types where women are under-represented. Across career types, women worked shorter hours per week than men and the presence of children further reduced hours of work for women only. Although the women studied are more active professionally than previous generations during their childbearing/rearing years, a considerable gap in the participation level remains.