The cascade of inflammatory cytokines regulating synthesis of acute phase proteins.
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The acute phase cytokines: interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (cachectin) and beta (lymphotoxin), hepatocyte stimulating factor and several interferons, all belong to the family of endotoxin-inducible, low molecular weight proteins. Their synthesis in macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, epithelial and some tumor cells is enhanced by the same cytokines, often in the autocrine manner, and suppressed by dexamethasone. The principal hepatocyte stimulating factor (HSF) regulating synthesis of acute phase proteins is probably identical with IFN-beta 2/BSF-2/IL-6, but other inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF alpha, IFN-gamma) are able to induce distinct sets of acute phase proteins, or to modulate the final response pattern. The effect of hrIFN-gamma on production of acute phase proteins by human hepatoma Hep G2 cells is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the cascades of inflammatory cytokines in different tissues represent amplification and regulatory pathways controlling the development of acute phase response in vivo.
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