Fondaparinux in the management of patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction
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The death rate of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains substantial. Fondaparinux is a synthetic selective Factor Xa inhibitor with a high efficacy and good safety, in terms of bleeding risk, in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, and in the treatment of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (OASIS-5). The OASIS-6 trial was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily with standard therapy, either placebo or unfractionated heparin according to the indication, in 12092 patients with STEMI. At day 30, fondaparinux significantly reduced the occurrence of the primary efficacy outcome (death or recurrent myocardial infarction) by 14% (p = 0.008). Consistent reductions in both death and recurrent MI were observed at 6-month follow-up. The benefits were significant in patients who received no reperfusion therapy or a thrombolytic agent, but not in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions. There was a trend (p = 0.13) towards fewer severe bleeds in the fondaparinux group (1.0% vs 1.3% in the control group). In conclusion, fondaparinux significantly reduced mortality without increasing severe bleeding in patients with STEMI. Overall, the data from the OASIS studies showed that fondaparinux 2.5 mg may represent a new anticoagulant standard in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
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