Venous Thromboembolism Risk in Ischemic Stroke Patients Receiving Extended-Duration Enoxaparin Prophylaxis: Results From the EXCLAIM Study
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in acute stroke patients is unknown. This subanalysis of the Extended Prophylaxis for Venous ThromboEmbolism in Acutely Ill Medical Patients With Prolonged Immobilization (EXCLAIM) study investigated extended-duration thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin, compared with placebo following standard-duration enoxaparin, in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: Acutely ill medical patients with recently reduced mobility received open-label enoxaparin 40 mg for 10±4 days, and they were then randomized to double-blind enoxaparin 40 mg daily or placebo for further 28±4 days. Venous thromboembolism incidence (symptomatic/asymptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, symptomatic/fatal pulmonary embolism) up to day 28 after randomization and major bleeding rates up to 48 h after the last dose of study treatment were reported. RESULTS: In total, 389 of 5963 (6.5%) randomized patients had ischemic stroke: 198 received extended-duration prophylaxis and 191 placebo. Extended-duration prophylaxis reduced venous thromboembolism incidence versus placebo (2.4% versus 8.0%; absolute risk difference, -5.6%; 95% CI, -10.5% to -0.7%), but it was associated with an increase in major bleeding (1.5% versus 0% in enoxaparin and placebo groups; absolute risk difference, +1.5%; 95% CI, -0.2% to 3.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin was associated with reduced venous thromboembolism risk and increased major bleeding in the subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke in the EXCLAIM study.
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