BAY 59-7939: an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients after total knee replacement. A phase II dose-ranging study
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BACKGROUND: BAY 59-7939, a novel, oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, is in clinical development for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a frequent complication following orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: In a multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study, 621 patients undergoing elective total knee replacement were randomly assigned to oral BAY 59-7939 (2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg b.i.d., initiated 6-8 h postsurgery), or subcutaneous enoxaparin (30 mg b.i.d., initiated 12-24 h postsurgery). Treatment was continued until mandatory bilateral venography 5-9 days after surgery. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of any deep vein thrombosis (proximal and/or distal), confirmed non-fatal pulmonary embolism and all-cause mortality during treatment. The primary safety endpoint was major, postoperative bleeding during treatment. RESULTS: Of the 613 patients treated, 366 (59.7%) were evaluable for the primary efficacy analysis. The primary efficacy endpoint occurred in 31.7%, 40.4%, 23.3%, 35.1%, and 25.4% of patients receiving 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg b.i.d. doses of BAY 59-7939, respectively (test for trend, P = 0.29), compared with 44.3% in the enoxaparin group. The frequency of major, postoperative bleeding increased with increasing doses of BAY 59-7939 (test for trend, P = 0.0007), with no significant difference between any dose group compared with enoxaparin. Bleeding endpoints were lower for the 2.5-10 mg b.i.d. doses compared with higher doses of BAY 59-7939. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of 2.5-10 mg b.i.d. of BAY 59-7939, early in the postoperative period, showed potential efficacy and an acceptable safety profile, similar to enoxaparin, for the prevention of VTE in patients undergoing elective total knee replacement.
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