Polyclonal B cell hyperplasia associated with Epstein-Barr virus causing acute renal allograft failure.
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Six weeks post cadaver renal transplantation, a patient developed a flu-like illness. Acute renal failure unresponsive to anti-rejection therapy occurred and he died four days later from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Streptococcus viridans septicemia. Autopsy revealed a diffuse polymorphic polyclonal B cell infiltrate occupying most organs, including the allograft. Primary Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection was established by 1) rising anti-EBV antibody titres; 2) the demonstration of EBV nuclear antigen in the infiltrate and 3) the presence of EBV specific DNA sequences in affected tissues. EBV associated polymorphic B cell hyperplasia can mimic rejection and result in acute allograft failure.
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