- Forty-nine of 255 (19.2%) Argentinean children between the ages of 1 and 18 months without evidence of viral or bacterial infections, but with clinical and radiologic evidence of acute lower respiratory distress, had serologic evidence of recent Chlamydia trachomatis infection by the demonstration of specific IgM, seroconversion or 4-fold rise in titer or elevated titers by enzyme immunoassay and the microimmunofluorescence test. Recent C. trachomatis infection was detected in 28 of 166 (16.9%) of children with bronchiolitis and 18 of 89 (20.2%) with pneumonia. Three additional children with bronchiolitis had Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific antibody. There was a significantly higher prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in children living in La Plata city orphanage (26 of 74, 35.1%) than in those attending 2 pediatric hospitals in Buenos Aires (23 of 181, 12.7%) (P less than 0.001). C. trachomatis infection was detected in all age groups up to 18 months. Thirty of 49 infections were in children older than 3 months of age and 16 were in children older than 6 months. These results suggest that C. trachomatis infection may be associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children between the ages of 1 and 18 months of age in Argentina and that a proportion may be horizontally transmitted.