The Esophageal and Gastric Microbiome in Health and Disease
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The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach. Esophageal inflammation is associated with an altered microbiota in gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis, and cancer.
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