Medial Ankle and Heel: Ultrasound Evaluation and Sonographic Appearances of Conditions Causing Symptoms
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The complex anatomy of the medial ankle and hindfoot can make clinical assessment of medial ankle and heel pain challenging. Ultrasound is an accessible, relatively inexpensive modality, and modern high-resolution probes allow eloquent demonstration of the main structures that are implicated as potential causes of medial ankle pain. In this work we review highlights the clinically relevant anatomy and normal sonographic appearances of structures around the medial ankle and heel and discuss key techniques to allow optimal ultrasound assessment. The conditions that cause medial-sided ankle and heel symptoms are discussed with their characteristic sonographic appearances.
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