Complications of Orbital Implants: A Review of 542 Patients Who Have Undergone Orbital Implantation and 275 Subsequent Peg Placements
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PURPOSE: To inform patients and physicians of the complications associated with three commonly used orbital implants, as well as associated anophthalmic socket issues. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 542 patients who underwent eviscerations, enucleations and secondary procedures by one surgeon (Dr. James Oestreicher) was completed, paying special attention to complications in the follow-up period prior to pegging, as well as those that occurred post-pegging. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of patients experienced complications prior to implant drilling, with discharge being the most prevalent (15.9%). Secondary procedures were associated with significantly greater complication rates prior to implant drilling. Silicone implants had significantly less pre-pegging pyogenic granuloma (P = 0.011) and hypo-ophthalmos (P = 0.042) than the other implant types. Seven implants had to be removed due to exposure. Implant drilling and peg placement were performed in 275 patients. Implant drilling complications were experienced by 67.4% of pegged patients, with a change in discharge from prior to pegging (27.2%) being the most prevalent. Plastic peg systems had a significantly higher incidence of complications than titanium systems. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of orbital implantations involve complications, these being largely minor ones which resolve spontaneously or are easily treated. Secondary implant procedures involve a higher likelihood of complications. Silicone implants have the smallest amount of complications. Should patients decide to undergo pegging, evidence sides strongly for the use of a titanium peg and sleeve system over the other peg types. Implant removal is a rare event; occurring in 1.3% (n = 7) of the study population.
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