Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes
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BACKGROUND: Glycaemic control is a key issue in the care of people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Some studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship between glycaemic control and periodontal disease. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between periodontal therapy and glycaemic control in people with diabetes and to identify the appropriate future strategy for this question. SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive approach was adopted employing handsearching; searching of electronic databases including the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ZETOC, ISI Web of Knowledge and LILACS; contact with appropriate non-English language healthcare professionals; authors and organisations. The final date for searching for studies was 24th March 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: This review studied randomised controlled trials of people with Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with a diagnosis of periodontitis. Suitable interventions included mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunctives and oral hygiene education. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The titles and abstracts of 690 papers were examined by two review authors independently. Ultimately, seven studies were included and 19 excluded after full text scrutiny. All trials were assessed for risk of bias. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies had results pooled into a meta-analysis. The effect for the mean percentage difference in HbA1c for scaling/root planing and oral hygiene (+/- antibiotic therapy) versus no treatment/usual treatment after 3/4 months was -0.40% (95% confidence interval (CI) fixed effect -0.78% to -0.01%), representing a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c (P = 0.04) for scaling/root planing. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias with the other two at moderate to high risk of bias. A subgroup analysis examined studies without adjunctive antibiotics -0.80% (one study: 95% CI -1.73% to 0.13%; P = 0.09), with adjunctive antibiotics in the test group -0.36% (one study: 95% CI -0.83% to 0.11%; P = 0.14), and with antibiotics in both test and control groups after 3/4 months -0.15% (one study: 95% CI -1.04% to 0.74%; P = 0.74). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence of improvement in metabolic control in people with diabetes, after treating periodontal disease. There are few studies available and individually these lacked the power to detect a significant effect. Most of the participants in the study had poorly controlled Type 2 DM with little data from randomised trials on the effects on people with Type 1 DM.Improving periodontal health is an important objective in itself. However, in order to understand the potential of this treatment to improve glycaemic control among people with diabetes, larger, carefully conducted and reported studies are needed.
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