Antimicrobial resistance is a rapidly increasing problem impacting the successful treatment of bacterial infectious disease. To combat resistance, the development of new treatment options is required. Recent advances in technology have aided in the discovery of novel antibacterial agents, specifically through genome mining for novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters and improved small molecule high-throughput screening methods. Novel targets such as lipopolysaccharide and fatty acid biosyntheses have been identified by essential gene studies, representing a shift from traditional antibiotic targets. Finally, inhibiting non-essential genes with small molecules is being explored as a method for rescuing the activity of ‘old’ antibiotics, providing a novel synergistic approach to antimicrobial discovery.