Similarities in serum oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines in patients with overt schizophrenia at early and late stages of chronicity
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Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder that strikes at a critical period of a young person's life. Its pathophysiology could be the result of deregulation of synaptic plasticity, with downstream alterations of inflammatory immune processes regulate by cytokines, impaired antioxidant defense and increased lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to examine serum oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines in early and late phases of chronic SZ. Twenty-two patients at early stage (within first 10 years of a psychotic episode), 39 at late stage (minimum 10 years after diagnosis of SZ) and their respective matched controls were included. Each subject had 5 ml blood samples collected by venipuncture to examined thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), protein carbonyl content (PCC), Interleukins 6 and 10 (IL-6, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). TBARS, IL-6 and PCC levels were significantly higher in patients with SZ at early and late stages than in controls. There were no differences for TRAP and TNF-alpha levels in patients with SZ at early and late stages than in controls. IL-10 levels were decreased in patients at late stage and a decrease trend in early stage was found. Results provided evidence consistent with comparable biological markers across chronic SZ. The concept of biochemical staging proposed by others for bipolar disorder is not seen in this cohort of patients with SZ, at least for cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Our findings reinforce the need of assessment of individuals in ultra high risk to develop psychosis and first-episode population.
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