Comparison of the effects of omapatrilat and lisinopril on circulating neurohormones and cytokines in patients with chronic heart failure
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors exert their effects by modulating the neurohumoral milieu. Vasopeptidase inhibitors (VPI) are ACE and neutral endopeptidase inhibitors and may increase natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, and perhaps endothelin-1 in patients with congestive heart failure. Patients (n = 107) with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association functional class II to III, with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, and on ACE inhibitor therapy were randomized to either the VPI omapatrilat 40 mg/day or the ACE inhibitor lisinopril 20 mg/day. Trough levels of neurohormones (24 hours after dosing) were assessed at baseline, and at 12 and 24 weeks of follow-up. C-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (C-ANP) levels decreased with lisinopril (p = 0.035), but not with omapatrilat. In contrast, N-terminal ANP levels did not change, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels tended to decrease similarly in both groups. Endothelin-1 levels increased in both groups, the increase reaching statistical significance with omapatrilat (p = 0.008). Levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 tended to decrease, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 increased in both groups, with statistical significance only for interleukin-10 with omapatrilat therapy. Neither agent changed catecholamines or angiotensin II. Thus, even at trough levels, omapatrilat potentiates C-ANP more than lisinopril. Potentially important effects of omapatrilat on endothelin-1 and anti-inflammatory cytokines were identified, providing potential explanations for differences in clinical outcome.
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