Treatment of esophageal obstruction from mediastinal compressive tumors with covered, self-expanding metallic Z-stents
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BACKGROUND: Mediastinal malignancies may involve the esophagus, leading to esophageal stenosis and dysphagia. Rigid and self-expanding esophageal stents have been used for effective palliation, but their use in extrinsic, compressive lesions is controversial. METHODS: A retrospective review of self-expanding Gianturco-Rösch Z-stents that were successfully placed in 13 patients with malignant esophageal obstruction due to extrinsic lesions. RESULTS: All patients had an improvement in dysphagia of at least two dysphagia grades. The mean dysphagia grade fell from 3.15 to 0.62. Mean survival was 2.2 months. Early (within 48 hours) procedure-related complications occurred in 4 of 13 patients and consisted of minor, transient chest pain that resolved within 6 hours (3 patients) and endoscopic stent dislodgment into the stomach (1 patient). Late complications (> 48 hours) occurred in 2 patients and consisted of a partial proximal stent migration and the development of a benign stricture proximal to the stent. There was no procedural or stent related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal obstruction and malignant dysphagia from extrinsic, compressive mediastinal malignancies can be effectively and safely palliated with self-expanding Gianturco- Rösch Z-stents.
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