Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Biopsy of Suspected Anterior Prostate Cancers Identified by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pilot Study of a Novel Technique
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OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel biopsy technique that involves performing a cognitively directed transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to diagnose suspected anterior prostate cancers (APCs) detected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. METHODS: This is a prospective study in which participants aged 50-75 were offered inclusion if they had an elevated prostate-specific antigen level, a lesion suspicious for APC on mpMRI, and at least one prior negative TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Prostatic mpMRI was acquired with a 3-Tesla machine without endorectal coil. Preoperative review of the mpMRI images was used to target the suspected APC on TURP biopsy. The primary outcome was the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer, defined as the presence of any Gleason pattern ≥ 4 in the specimen. Secondary outcomes included biopsy-related complications including 30-day readmissions. RESULTS: A total of 16 consecutive participants were enrolled. Median age was 64 years, median prostate-specific antigen was 12.4 ng/mL, and participants had a median of 2 prior negative TRUS-guided biopsies. Thirteen (81.3%) participants had clinically significant APCs detected by TURP biopsy. One participant was readmitted within 30-days postprocedure for continuous bladder irrigation. Seven participants (43.8%) underwent radical prostatectomy that confirmed clinically significant disease in all 7 participants. CONCLUSION: Among participants with anterior prostate lesions on mpMRI and prior negative TRUS-guided biopsy, TURP biopsy does detect some clinically significant cancers. This study serves as a proof of concept and further comparative trials are needed prior to widespread adoption.
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