Investigation of human papillomavirus in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder in South Africa
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AIM: To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in South Africa. METHODS: Ninety-one archival samples of bladder transitional cell carcinoma were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) for the detection of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33 genotypes. RESULTS: HPV was detected in only one case with PCR. HPV was not detected in any of the cases subjected to the NISH system. CONCLUSION: This study shows that although HPV has been shown to be associated with uterine cervical and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas in South Africa, this virus is not present in the transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in this geographical location. It is suggested that other factors, including nitrosamine exposure, p53 mutation, and additional unknown chromosomal events, may play a role in the carcinogenesis of this neoplasm in the bladder.
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