Regulation of apolipoprotein B biogenesis in human hepatocytes: Posttranscriptional control mechanisms that determine the hepatic production of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins Conference Paper uri icon

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abstract

  • OBJECTIVES: Hepatic overproduction of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins appears to be a common cause of hyperlipoproteinemia in humans. Patients with overproduction states secrete denser cholesterol ester-rich lipoprotein particles which are highly atherogenic. The formation of apoB particles involves a very complex process that requires the coordinated synthesis and assembly of apoB, triglycerides, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and other components. ApoB expression is an important prerequisite for the assembly and secretion of apoB particles. Evidence to date appears to suggest that apoB expression is regulated posttranscriptionally. ApoB secretion rate is determined at the levels of apoB translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as degradation within the ER. RESULTS AND HYPOTHESIS: Based on available data, we postulate that the rate of apoB particle secretion is determined at the critical point where newly-synthesized apoB interacts with core lipids, particularly triglycerides. The supply of these lipids determines the rate of translocation of the apoB molecule across the ER membrane and into the ER lumen. Lipidation of apoB facilitates its proper folding, its assembly into a lipoprotein particle, and its extracellular secretion. In the absence of lipids, apoB is misfolded resulting in the abortion of ER translocation and subsequent degradation by an apoB specific protease. CONCLUSIONS: The balance between intracellular degradation and extracellular secretion determines the rate at which the human liver secretes apoB particles.

publication date

  • April 1995