Antithrombotic Therapy With Fondaparinux in Relation to Interventional Management Strategy in Patients With ST- and Non–ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes
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BACKGROUND: The Fifth and Sixth Organization to Assess Strategies in Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS 5 and 6) trials evaluated fondaparinux, a synthetic factor Xa inhibitor, in patients with non-ST- and ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, respectively. Combined results for these 2 trials on major efficacy and safety outcomes and data on the effects of fondaparinux in relation to interventional management strategy have not been previously reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an individual patient-level combined analysis of 26 512 patients from the OASIS 5 and 6 trials who were randomized in a double-blind fashion to fondaparinux 2.5 mg daily or a heparin-based strategy (dose-adjusted unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin). Results were stratified according to whether an early invasive, a delayed invasive, or an initial conservative management strategy was performed. Fondaparinux was superior to heparin in reducing the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (8.0% versus 7.2%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; P=0.03) and death alone (4.3% versus 3.8%; HR, 0.89; P=0.05). Fondaparinux reduced major bleeding by 41% (3.4% versus 2.1%; HR, 0.59; P<0.00001) and had a more favorable net clinical outcome than heparin (11.1% versus 9.3%; HR, 0.83; P<0.0001). In 19 085 patients treated with an invasive strategy, fondaparinux suppressed ischemic events to an extent similar to heparin and reduced major bleeding by more than one-half, resulting in a superior net clinical outcome (10.8% versus 9.4%; HR, 0.87; P=0.008). A similar benefit also was observed in those treated with a conservative strategy (HR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.85; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a heparin-based strategy, fondaparinux reduced mortality, ischemic events, and major bleeding across the full spectrum of acute coronary syndromes and was associated with a more favorable net clinical outcome in patients undergoing either an invasive or a conservative management strategy.
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