This article analyzes the differences between an activity-specific temperament model and the Big Five personality model using the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire–Compact (STQ-77). The STQ-77 has 3 emotionality scales and 9 scales assessing 3 dynamic aspects (arousal, lability, and sensory sensitivity) in 3 areas of activity (physical, verbal–social, and mental). The results of administration of the Russian STQ-77, NEO-FFI, and SSS-V to 174 Russian participants showed how components of temperament can represent the traits described in the Big Five model. The confirmatory factor analysis of the English STQ-77 and the results of a study involving a prolonged word classification task with 221 Canadian participants showed the benefits of the activity-specific approach, separating temperament traits in three areas of activity. Such specificity of temperament traits differentiates them from personality traits.