Clear cell renal cell carcinoma induces fibroblast-mediated production of stromal periostin
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OBJECTIVES: Increase in periostin (PN) was reported in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). But how PN contributes to ccRCC pathogenesis remains unclear. This research will investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The PN protein in 37 adjacent non-tumour kidney (ANK) tissues, their respective ccRCCs, 16 cases of metastasised ccRCC and xenograft tumours was analysed by immunohistochemistry. PN expression in ccRCC cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts was examined by real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and western blot. RESULTS: PN was detected at low levels in the tubular epithelial cells of ANKs. PN was robustly increased in the ccRCC-associated stroma of both organ-confined and metastasised ccRCCs. Furthermore, despite A498 ccRCC cells and their-derived xenograft tumour cells expressing a low level of PN, a strong presence of stromal PN was observed especially in the boundary region between xenograft tumour mass and non-tumour tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that the ccRCC-associated PN was derived from stroma instead of tumours. This notion was supported by the co-existence of PN with α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a marker of activated fibroblasts, in both local and metastasised ccRCC. Furthermore, co-culture of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts with either human A498 or 786-0 ccRCC cells dramatically enhanced PN transcription only in NIH3T3 cells as well as NIH3T3 cell-mediated accumulation of extracellular PN. In return, extracellular PN significantly enhanced A498 cell attachment. Elevation of PN promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation and enhanced AKT activation. CONCLUSIONS: ccRCC induces fibroblast-mediated accumulation of stromal PN; stromal PN enhances ccRCC cell attachment and fibroblast proliferation.
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