Resting heart rate is associated with renal disease outcomes in patients with vascular disease: results of the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies
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BACKGROUND: Resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular disease outcomes in high-risk patients. It is not known whether RHR is predictive of renal outcomes such as albuminuria, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or doubling of creatinine. We evaluated whether RHR could predict renal endpoints in patients at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. We also tested the effects of RHR at different levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP). METHODS: We analysed data from 28 757 patients in the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. RHR and SBP were available for a mean of 4.9 ± 0.4 visits (range 3-5) within the first 2 years of the studies. Albuminuria was determined at baseline, at 2 years and at study end. RESULTS: Mean RHR was predictive of incident micro-albuminuria [hazard ratio (HR) for RHR ≥80 vs. <60 beats min(-1) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.71, P < 0.0001], incident macro-albuminuria (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.39-2.42, P < 0.0001), doubling of creatinine (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.00-2.17, P = 0.050) and ESRD (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-3.16, P = 0.050), and the combined renal end-point (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.32-1.74, P < 0.0001). Associations were robust at SBPs from <120 to ≥150 mmHg, with the lowest risk at a SBP of 130-140 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Resting heart rate is a potent predictor of these renal outcomes, as well as their combination, in patients with cardiovascular disease. RHR at all SBP levels should be considered as a possible renal disease risk predictor and should be investigated as a treatment target with RHR-reducing agents.
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